Aquafacts / African Penguins

African penguins

You have questions about African penguins and we have answers, direct from our biologists and other reputable sources.

Quick info


Population decline since the early 1900s

27 years

Oldest age reached in human care


Penguin species around the world

20 kilometres per hour

Maximum swimming speed

Which penguin species lives at the Aquarium?

The African penguin (Spheniscus demersus) – it’s the only penguin known to live along the southern coasts of Africa today. They breed in colonies on islands and the coastal mainland from Namibia to South Africa.

It’s also called the black-footed penguin (due to the colour of its feet), and the jackass penguin (because of its very distinct donkey-like call).

How many species are there?

There are 18 different kinds (species) of penguins, and they all live in the Southern Hemisphere, except one – the Galapagos penguin (Spheniscus mendiculus). It lives at the equator.

Contrary to popular belief, penguins and polar bears don’t live in the same part of the world. Polar bears live in the Arctic, which is at the opposite end of the world from Antarctica.

Some (older) penguin information sites may still say that there are 17 penguin species, but we follow the list produced by BirdLife International, which is the official information source for birds used by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List.

Where do the penguins at the Aquarium come from?

They come from the New England Aquarium in Boston, Massachusetts. They were bred there as part of the Association of Zoos and Aquariums’ (AZA) Species Survival Plan (SSP).

Why were they sent to the Vancouver Aquarium?

They are here as ambassadors for their species, giving our visitors an opportunity to get to know them. This will also help our visitors understand the plight of the African penguins living in southern Africa. As a member of the AZA, the Aquarium works with other zoos and aquariums to meet SSP and Penguin Taxonomic Advisory Group (TAG) goals to protect these birds. Besides breeding them, AZA members also work hard to educate our visitors about animals, especially those that are endangered.

Do African penguins have any predators?

Yes. In the water, they have to watch out for Cape fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus), sharks and the occasional killer whale (Orcinus orca). On land, especially in the breeding colonies, mongooses (Cynictis penicillata), genets (Genetta tigrina), domestic cats, kelp gulls (Larus dominicanus) and sacred ibises (Threskiornis aethiopicus) will eat penguin eggs and chicks.

What do African penguins eat and how do they catch their food?

African Penguins eat fish, like sardines and anchovies, as well as squid. They dive for their food using their torpedo-shaped bodies, webbed feet and flipper-shaped wings. These birds can swim as fast as 20 km/hr and travel up to 70 km away from land. Their diving trips last about 2.5 minutes and they can go as deep as 60 metres!

What are those pink patches above the African penguin’s eyes?

Those are bare skin patches that turn pink when the penguin gets hot. It’s a way for them to cool off. Think about your face flushing up (getting red) when you feel hot. Because they live in sub-tropical climates, African penguins have to cope with both cooling down on land and keeping warm in the water.

Are African penguins endangered?

Yes, the African penguin is listed as endangered by the IUCN, and by the United States’ Fish and Wildlife Service through the Endangered Species Act.

95% of them have disappeared since the early 1900s.

One of the biggest threats facing them today is lack of seafood. These penguins’ main diet is sardines and anchovies, are shifting away from their established breeding colonies, meaning that the birds need to swim further to get their food which is harder for the penguins during the critical time of raising their hungry chicks. African penguins are also competing against the commercial fishery for these fishes. You can help African penguins by checking to see where your seafood is coming from, and looking for the Ocean Wise symbol. Ocean Wise is a Vancouver Aquarium conservation program created to educate and empower consumers about the issues surrounding sustainable seafood. The Ocean Wise logo next to a menu or seafood item is an assurance that the item is a good choice for keeping ocean life healthy and abundant for generations to come.

Do these penguins mate for life?

African penguins appear to be a monogamous bird, with mates returning to each other on the same beach and nest site for successive years. However, if a mate were not to return, an African penguin can find another mate to breed with. The female will lay a clutch of two eggs in sand or guano (poop) burrows, and both the male and female will take turns incubating their eggs for 40 days.


1. BirdLife International (2010). Spheniscus demersus. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.1: Downloaded on 11 May 2012.

2. BirdLife International (2011) Species factsheet: Spheniscus demersus: Downloaded on 11/05/2012

3. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (28 September 2010) African Penguin Receives Endangered Species Act Protection. News Releases:

4. Koenig, Robert. (2 March 2007) African Penguin Populations Reported in a Puzzling Decline. Science, Vol. 315, p. 1205

5. Ward, Paul. (2001) Antarctic Penguins. Cool Antarctica: 

6. Houston, Dave (2007) Frequently Asked Questions. New Zealand Penguins:

7. Encyclopedia of Life, Saundry, P., Caley, K. J. (2010) "Black-footed penguin". In: Encyclopedia of Earth. Eds. Cutler J. Cleveland (Washington, D.C.: Environmental Information Coalition, National Council for Science and the Environment). Last revised Date January 15, 2010; Retrieved May 11, 2012

8. Pearce, W. 2011. "Spheniscus demersus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed May 11, 2012 at

9. Banfill, James (2009) African Penguin. Penguin Sentinels, University of Washington:

10. Wolfdaart, Anton (2000) African Penguin. International Penguin Conservation Work Group:

11. ARKive Education (2010) African penguin (Spheniscus demersus). Factsheet:
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