Message from the VP Marine Science
This Howe Sound Group annual report for 2012 has a focus on our newly realized connections between long-term observations and annual weather cycles known as ENSO (El Nino Southern Oscillation) events. Right now, we are entering that most unusual of climate circumstances, the “normal” ENSO year. This relative scarcity of “normal” years relates to the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration adhering to a rule of five consecutive months with at least a 0.5 degree centigrade anomaly in comparison to Pacific Ocean averages. Some oceanographers argue that it might be more useful to examine only the less frequent years in which there are at least five months with 1.0 degree anomalies. The positive anomalies indicate El Nino, and the negative, La Nina conditions.